The Convention also contains a new specificity of international law, the regime applicable to the states of the archipelago (states such as the Philippines and Indonesia, which are made up of a group of islands with limited space). For these states, the coastal sea is a 12-mile zone that stretches from a line connecting the most extreme points of the group`s most extreme islands, which are in the immediate vicinity. The waters between the islands are declared waters of the archipelago, where ships of all states enjoy the innocent right of passage. In these waters, states can set up sea lanes and routes on which all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of rapid and unhindered right of passage. A greater understanding of the convention will broaden its application. Stability promises order and harmonious development. However, Part XI, which deals with the extraction of minerals at the bottom of the deep sea outside nationally regulated maritime areas, in the so-called international seabed zone, has raised many concerns, particularly from industrialized countries. The Secretary-General has launched a series of informal consultations between states with a view to achieving universal participation in the Convention in order to resolve this worrying situation. The consultations resulted in an agreement in July 1998 on the implementation of Part XI of the Convention. The convention, which is part of the convention, is now seen as an instrument for all states to become parties to the convention.
The agreement was also based on the secular tradition of the social contract, the idea of alliances between men themselves, which date back to antiquity, but which were later made famous by philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The Assembly rejected the idea of amending the articles of Confederation and turned to the alignment of a new government scheme, but it found itself divided, delegates from small states (who are not entitled to unoccupied Western countries) and opposing those of the large states above the distribution of representation. Edmund Randolph proposed a plan known as Virginia or the great state, which provided for bicameral legislative power with each state`s derion on the basis of its population or wealth. William Paterson proposed the plan for New Jersey, which provided for equal representation in Congress. Neither the big nor the small states would give in. Oliver Ellsworth and Roger Sherman, among others, in what is sometimes emed Connecticut, or Great, Compromise, proposed a double legislative chamber with proportional representation in the House of Commons and equal representation of states in the House of Lords. All income measures would come from the House of Commons. This compromise was adopted on 16 July.
To balance the balance with continental shelf enlargements, coastal states must also contribute to a system of revenue sharing from mineral resource development beyond 200 miles. These payments or contributions – from which net importing developing countries are excluded – are distributed equitably among the States Parties to the Convention through the International Seabed Authority. If direct talks between the parties fail, the Convention gives them a choice of four procedures – some new, some old ones: filing the case with the International Court of Justice for the Law of the Sea, the decision of the International Court of Justice, submission to mandatory international arbitration or submission to special arbitration tribunals competent for certain types of litigation. All of these procedures involve a binding third-party regime, in which a representative other than the parties directly concerned makes a decision that the parties agree to respect in advance. The adoption of the Part XI agreement eliminated this threat. Almost all States, even temporarily awaiting ratification or accession, are now complying with the Convention, and the threat to the Convention has been lifted.