Jkl Agreement 1948

Although several municipalities around the world are expressing the possibility of implementation in accordance with the 1.5oC tracks (Box 4.1-4.10), very few countries, regions, cities, municipalities or businesses can currently claim such a requirement (high confidence). To strengthen the global response, almost all countries should significantly increase their ambitions. Implementation of this increased objective would require increased institutional capacity in all countries, including the creation of capacity to use local and local knowledge (average evidence, high support). In developing countries and for poor and vulnerable people, the implementation of the response would require financial, technological and other capacity-building assistance, which would require the mobilization of additional local, national and international resources (high confidence). However, the public, financial, institutional and innovation capacities of all countries are not currently able to implement large-scale measures (high confidence). Transnational networks that support climate change action at several levels are multiplying, but remain challenges. 4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.4, 4.4, 4.4, Box 4.1, Box 4.2, Field 4.7 Global and Regional land use and ecosystem transitions and behavioural changes that would be needed to limit warming to 1.5oC can improve the adaptive and mitigation potential of agricultural and forest land. However, these transitions could have an impact on livelihoods that depend on agriculture and natural resources. Changes to agricultural and forest systems to meet mitigation targets could affect existing ecosystems and their services and could jeopardize food security, water and livelihoods. While this may limit the social and environmental viability of land-based mitigation options, rigorous planning and implementation could improve their acceptance and support sustainable development goals (average evidence, average agreement). {4.3.2, 4.5.3} Security Council Resolution 39 of April 1948 established a United Nations Commission (UNSC) to mediate between India and Pakistan to end the fighting in Kashmir and hold a referendum. After negotiations with both sides, the Commission adopted a three-part resolution in August 1948 and then added a “complement”.

The three sides relate to the ceasefire, the terms of the ceasefire and the negotiating procedures related to the referendum. The two countries accepted the resolution and a ceasefire was concluded on 31 December 1948. In 1948 and the 1950s, the Security Council adopted several resolutions on the India-Pakistan dispute over the region, including a resolution that a referendum should be held to decide the future of Predominantly Muslim Kashmir. There is growing evidence that a significant shift in savings and spending towards low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure and services requires the development of global and national financial systems. It is estimated that, in addition to the allocation of climate-friendly public investments, it is necessary to reduce annual capital income1 from 5 to 10% to limit warming to 1.5oC, Table 1 of Box 4.8. This could be facilitated by a change in incentives for daily private spending and by diverting savings from speculative and precautionary investments to low-carbon, long-term facilities and services. This involves mobilizing institutional investors and integrating climate finance into the regulation of financial and banking systems.

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